Indian Education System From The Ancient Time By Now

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Education is what survives, when what has been learnt has been forgotten.

The education system in India is considered to be one of the largest and most ancient ones in the world .The history of the education system in India dates back to the first centuries, when the young children were taught in the Gurukuls and Guru-Shishya system was the most common means of education After that famous universities like Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain and Vikramshila came into existence and enhance the scope of students. In modern times, the education system in India is divided into different stages or levels which are been provided in numerous schools, colleges, universities and other institutions.
Indian schooling takes basically fourteen years from childs lifetime, starting with the nursery classes where a child learns the basic alphabets of English and other tools of the basic subjects. The idea is to develop the capability of recognizing and understanding the things around the kids. As the student gets promoted to the higher classes, he comes to know about the various aspects of our society. All this time, its not just the books that are included in the course curriculum to develop in him the skills of being a hard working child that believes to go deep in to the concept rather than becoming just a regurgitate, sports and other cultural activities are also added up in the day routine so that the refreshment along with the development of new skills may be developed in the child. Here I must not forget to add a new plan of CBSE for the class IX onwards students which is called CCE, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, in which the student will be evaluated regularly and diagnosed frequently not only on the basis of his performance in academics but his interest in extracurricular activities and complete behavior towards the environment.
India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States. The main governing body at the tertiary level enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. The IITs enroll about 8000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India.

With its plurality and paradoxes, India never ceases to fascinate. And education in India is only on among various other elements that have captured the attention of the world. While the United Nations is worried about the presence of a large number of illiterates, various other countries are amazed by the quality of some of the human resources that the Indian education system has produced. From an integrated and synergic viewpoint educational system constitutes the foundation of the legal, administrative, civic and developmental domains of unfolding India of tomorrow.


Definition of Student Affairs

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Definition of Student Affairs:

Aditi M Sengupta, Eastern Michigan University

Introduction: Student affairs Professionals are responsible for academic advising and support services delivery at colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. The division is an integral part of higher education system that seeks to serve the needs of the student. The Staff is responsible for program development and research techniques that benefit the student as a whole. They are also responsible for incorporating professional values through campus activities, counseling and resources (McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. 2009). Good practices in student affairs includes: 1.Engaging students in active learning. 2.Helping develop students’ coherent values and ethical standards. 3.Setting and communicating high expectations for student learning. 4.Using systematic enquiry to improve student and institutional performance. 5.Using resources effectively to achieve institutional missions and goals. 6.Forging educational partnerships that advance student learning. 7.Building supportive and inclusive communities.

Purpose of Student Affairs : The primary purpose of the student affairs program is to complement and enhance the college’s central educational mission. The student affairs philosophy is based on self governance i.e. students assume responsibility for themselves and their actions. A concurrent goal is to develop an effective support community within each residence hall that reflects and addresses the broad range of student experiences, life within a rigorous academic environment and concerns for the future. Professional staffs of student affairs fulfill an important role in helping students in making transitions and empowering them to make decisions. The structure of self governance includes the student affairs, student government, the committee on student life, the housing committee, the judicial system and the hall councils. A true teaching system is a practiced teaching philosophy by itself (McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. 2009). The questions that can be asked while defining Student Affairs: When asking about the Philosophy of education, the questions that commonly come to mind are: What do you believe about teaching? What do you believe about learning? How does that play out in classroom? How does student identity and background make a difference in how you teach? What do you still struggle with in terms of teaching and student learning? These are often the questions that come up to mind while teaching the philosophy of higher education based on idealism, realism, neo-theism, pragmatism and existentialism (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Philosophy of Student Affairs: The search for student affairs philosophy goes on. The importance of maintaining a philosophical heritage in student affairs and higher education is for the formulation of policy and programming. An autonomous philosophy of education has four subdivisions: analytical, clarifying the understanding of educational concepts and terms, metaphysical, stating the reality that lies behind the facts of education, ethical or normative justifying statements of recommendation in education and epistemological providing a theory of knowledge for education. The breadth and depth of Higher education Institutions in United States are unique. Higher Education in United States is reflected according to the dynamic changes that happened in the American society over time including the abolishment of slavery, the emancipation of women, the civil rights movement, overseas conflicts and wars and other factors. The main stay of Higher education philosophy has been adherence to the fundamental principle originally founded to support the academic mission of the Institution accepting the diversity based on the commitment and development of the student as an individual person(MacKinnon, F.J.D., & Associates 2004). Perspectives on Student Affairs: The first publication of -The Student Personnel Point of View- of 1939 published its fiftieth anniversary in 1989 focused on assumptions and beliefs to shape the works of Student affairs. In the present state of Higher Education these beliefs and assumptions are the foundations of the philosophy that guides the work of Higher Education. In addition to the mission and diversity of the Institution concerned, the new additions included the environment, the communities, common good and rights of the individual, set limits on behavior, intelligent risk taking and encouragement of independent thoughts and teaching. Hence the new philosophy is a guide to the individual student and the Institution (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002). Values and Ethics of Student Affairs: Rentz’s book on the critical issues of Student Affairs has mentioned the set of principles that embodies the ideals of student affairs profession. The main theme of the values as mentioned in Rentz is -the mission of student affairs flows from the mission of the Institution.-, based on the civil and the legal discourse of the Institution, communication and diverse assumptions in the learning community. The underlying concepts that support the profession focus on the administrative and management role of the Student Affairs Professional(Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002). The ethical dimensions of Student Affairs are the cornerstone of the Profession. The five simple but powerful ethical principles as stated in Rentz’s : The Foundation of student Affairs, include: respecting the autonomy of the Individual and the Institution, doing no harm, helping others, being just and being trustworthy. These are the stronger foundations of the ethical principles that are applicable to individual students, student groups and Institutions. The main skills of the student Affairs Administrator is the balance of the individual rights of students and does common good to the educational enterprise (Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Theoretical Foundations of Student Affairs: The theoretical groundwork for student affairs assist the student affairs practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, include psychology, sociology and education( Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).The student development theories can be generally classified into five categories:Psychosocial (Chickering’s vectors), Cognitive-structural (Perry’s cognitive model), Typological, Person-environment interaction models, and the Student development process models , Organizational theories. Psychosocial theories include theories of life-long issues that tend to occur in sequence and are correlated to chronological age, concentrating on individuals’ progress through various life stages by accomplishing certain deeds. The cognitive structural theories address how student perceives, organizes and reasons about their experiences. Person environment theories address interactions between conceptualizations of the college student and college environment, looking at behavior as a social function of the person and the environment. Humanistic existential theories concentrate on certain philosophical concepts about human nature about freedom, responsibility, self-awareness, and self actualization so that education and personal growth is facilitated. The organizational models are more focused on individual growth and development as compared to organizations of the higher education The model that has been cited in Rentz’s book about organizational models are the rational model, bureaucratic model, collegial model and the political model(Amey, M. J., Reesor, L. M. 2002).

Student Affairs Administration Framework: Successful operation of an educational Institution requires competent administrators. Student affairs administrators direct and coordinate the student services. Vice president of Student affairs or student life, Dean of Students and Director of Student Services direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recreational, and related programs. The framework of Student affairs administration includes academic advising, career services, counseling, discipline and judicial affairs, multicultural affairs, orientation, residence halls, student activities, student financial aid and student health. All the education administrators hold leadership positions with significant responsibility (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008-09).

Financial challenges in Student Affairs: Distribution of limited financial resources is an important challenge in all organizations. In student affairs managing the Institution’s budget often involve program performance evaluation, policy analysis, operational and financial plans, funding initiatives, and conformance with established procedures, regulations and organizational objectives. According to Budget of the US government -$95 billion in loans and grants are provided to help 10.9 million students who pay for college- (Budget of the US Government, 2009) which has brought a ray of hope to the Student affairs financial aid services of Institutions of Higher Education. In recent years as limited funding has led to downsizing and restructuring of the different aspects of Institutional budget, the role of student Affairs supporting the Financial resources are seeing their role broadened(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008-09).There is a always a provision of the financial challenges in the student affairs profession to expand.

My goal in life concerning a career in Student Affairs: As an initial commitment to the career of a Student Affairs profession, I want to encourage, support and prepare students to assume leadership positions in higher education to achieve greater talents in their future ambitions. The points of view which I would like to see in myself as a student affairs administrator are expertise in leadership skills, public speaking, establishing goals, making contacts, fundraising, intent, strategy and planning as well as a grass root activist as an educator to encourage undergraduate and graduate students in their advocacy and advancement of higher education principles ( Jennifer Byler Institute, 2010).

Conclusion: Student Affairs Profession is a challenge of professionalism and scholarly practice to show that simple activity and hard work are not enough. There is a continuous reflection, commitment, learning, growth that is acceptable to the students and Institutions. This requires an active participation in a professional community and continual learning and development to provide excellent service to students (Carpenter & Stimpson, 2007).

References: 1.Archibald, R. B., & Feldman, D. H. (2008). Explaining increases in higher education costs. The Journal of Higher Education, 79 (3), 268-295. 2.Ardaiolo, F. P., Bender, B. E., & Roberts, G. (2005). Campus services: What do students expect? In T. E.Miller, B. E. Bender, & J. H. Schuh (Eds.), Promoting reasonable expectations:Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience (pp. 84-101). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3.Carpenter, S.& Stimpson, M.T.(2007).Professionalism, Scholarly practice and Professional Development in Student Affairs. NASPA Journal, 44(2). Retrieved on January 8th, 2009 from: http://publications.naspa.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1795&context=naspajournal 4.Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers 5.Hirt, J. B., Amelink, C. T., & Schneiter, S. (2004). The nature of student affairs work in the liberal arts college. NASPA Journal, 42(1), 94-110. 6.MacKinnon, F.J.D., & Associates (2004). Rentz’s Student affairs practice in higher education (3rd ed.)(pp1-27) Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. 7.McClellan, G.S. & Stringer, J. (2009) The Handbook of Student Affairs Administration (3rd ed.). (pp 1-250).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 8.Occupational Outlook Handbook (2008-2009).125 years Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved on December 3, 2009 from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos007.htm http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos003.htm 9.Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., & Cheatham, M. E. (1997). American College Personnel Association strategic initiative on multiculturism. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 62-67. 10.Rogers, J. L. (2003). Leadership. In S. R. Komives, D. B. Woodard, Jr., and Associates. Student services: A handbook for the profession (4th ed.) (pp. 447-465). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 11.Taub, D. J, & McEwen, M. K. (2006). Decision to enter the profession of student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 206-216. 12.Tull, A. (2006). Synergistic supervision, job satisfaction, and intention to turnover of new professionals in student affairs. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 465-480. 13.Waple, J. N. (2006). Assessment of skills and competencies necessary for entry-level student affairs work. NASPA Journal, 43(1), 1-18.


Contributions of Professional Social Work – Some Reflections and Contemplations

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Contributions of Professional Social Work – Some Reflections and Contemplations

P.Ilango

Professor & Head, Department of Social Work, Bharathidasan University, Khajamalai Campus, Tiruchirappalli – 23. Email: pon.

In his recent book entitled -What is professional social work?-, Malcolm Payne portrays the now classic analysis of social work as a discourse between three aspects of practice: social order, therapeutic and transformational perspectives. He gives a clarion call to social workers to analyse and value the role of social work in present-day multiprofessional social care. He also explores social work’s struggle to meet its claim to achieve social progress through interpersonal practice. Payne specifically addresses some specific issues and concerns such as practical ways of analysing personal professional identity, understanding how social workers embody their profession in their practice with other professionals, detailed analysis of current and historical documents defining social work and social care, analysis of values, agencies and global social work. His work has stimulated social workers, students and policy makers in social care to think again about the valuable role social work plays in society (Malcolm Payne, 2006). Professional social workers have a strong tradition of working for social justice and refusing to recreate unequal social structures. This means going beyond state sponsored practices which merely cater to individual needs. Social work maintains this radical kernel with the objective of transforming society as a whole. Today, many social workers internationally have strong connections with social and political movements for the emancipation of the oppressed. The main tasks of professional social workers are case management (linking clients with agencies and programs that will meet their psychosocial needs), medical social work, counseling (psychotherapy), human services management, social welfare policy analysis, community organizing, advocacy, teaching (in schools of social work), and social science research. Professional social workers work in a variety of settings, including: non-profit or public social service agencies, grassroots advocacy organizations, hospitals, hospices, community health agencies, schools, faith-based organizations, and even the military. Other social workers work as psychotherapists, counselors, or mental health practitioners, normally working in coordination with psychiatrists, psychologists, or other medical professionals. Additionally, some social workers have chosen to direct the focus their efforts on social policy or academic research towards the practice or ethics of social work. While the emphasis has varied among these task areas in different eras and countries, some areas have been the subject of controversy as to whether they are properly part of social work’s mission. (Wikipedia). While celebrating the over 100 years of professional social workers’ contributions during March 2001, the then NASW President Ruth W.Mayden mentioned “Across the nation, the contributions of social workers are being recognized by agencies, community leaders, and government officials. This is a wonderful opportunity for us to acknowledge the work of these excellent professional social workers-work that often is unnoticed and overlooked. For these social workers, we take the month of March to say thank you and to celebrate these caring and skilled professionals who have helped individuals, families and communities throughout our country and abroad.” In fact, it is said that March is National Professional Social Work Month. When I read about these things, my heart started aching to realize that professional social workers in India, even after over 7 decades of existence, still do not get this kind of a public recognition and encouragement. In U.S.A, The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) is the largest and most recognized membership organization of professional social workers in the world. Representing 150,000 members from 56 chapters in the United States and abroad, the association promotes, develops and protects the practice of social work and social workers. NASW also seeks to enhance the well-being of individuals, families, and communities through its work and advocacy. Although membership is generally not required for licensure, NASW survey data give a rough idea of how social workers are employed in the US. According to NASW: Nearly 40% of NASW members say that mental health is their primary practice area. The health sector employs 8% of NASW’s members, and 8% practice in child welfare or family organizations. Six percent of NASW members say school social work is their primary practice area, and another 3% work primarily with adolescents. (NASW, 2005) These figures are significantly confounded by the fact that NASW members are primarily licensed practitioners working in the clinical arena, and the fact that many social workers in the field do not actually hold a degree in social work. NASW is usually concerned with issues like licensing, reimbursement, etc., that are not relevant to child welfare practice, for instance. Private practice was not part of the social work profession when it began in the late 1800s. It has been controversial among social workers, some of whom feel that the more lucrative opportunities of private practice have led many social workers to abandon the field’s historic mission of assisting disadvantaged populations. The private practice model can be at odds with the community development and political activism strains of social work. (Wikipedia). The Making of a Professional Social Worker As a social worker, one carries an important role in helping the community. Social workers are a special class of workers in that their work demands a lot from them — physically, mentally and emotionally. They are there to assist various people with different kinds of problems. Some of these problems include unemployment, substance abuse, housing and shelter concerns and domestic problems. Social workers are the first people to respond in times of crisis. They are the first to offer guidance, support and services in broad and varied ways. Hence, their job is definitely not an easy one. To become a social worker, here are some things to keep in mind: 1.Training. Social Work operates on a wide field, which means that you can either get into a family career, a child career, a community career or a counseling career. If you are interested in becoming a social worker, the job demands you to have a social degree, such as a Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work, to be able to enter the field. If you are already a degree holder in nursing, psychology, behavioral science or sociology, for example, some agencies will only require you to get training as a Social Worker. This should be enough to complement your credentials. 2.Attitude. Most of the time, it would seem as though social workers do their work voluntarily, even to the extent of opening up their own homes to those in need. Because this is the case, becoming a social worker requires a selfless attitude, first and foremost. An effective social worker must also have committed energy to do this kind of work. He must have this mindset of putting others first before one’s own needs. 3.Organizational skills. A social worker must also have excellent problem solving skills, discipline, a knack for time management, and good communication skills, as social workers will often act as liaisons and consultants for their wards. They must be competent team players since they will also need to coordinate and work together with different agencies. Many social workers work closely with other charitable organizations, government agencies, schools and hospitals. 4.Exposure. When you already a degree holder, your next step is to get into actual training by doing a lot of voluntary work. Exposure is very important to a social worker’s effectiveness and you can only gain this by going through different community care groups, residential homes and similar agencies. The training you will achieve doing this will help you figure out your strength as well as your weaknesses, thus giving you a better understanding of how you can use your skills in helping others. Social work is a job that can be extremely challenging, heavy and stressful. But there are still plenty of people interested in becoming social workers because the bottom line is that this job also has plenty of rewards when it comes to finding a purposeful life. Social Workers have become vital contributors in our communities over the last century. They can be found working in schools, hospitals, community mental health centers, correctional facilities and some are even members of Congress. Professional social workers are the nation’s largest providers of mental health and therapy services in both rural and urban areas. Social workers provide an important service by being able to coordinate both counseling services with community and environmental resources The skills social workers bring to the situation are:

social analysis – to help people understand

social catalyst – to help people achieve change for themselves

social action – working through social relationships to sustain change This can be achieved on the individual level, with the family and local community or at a national/global level.

Significant Contributions

Every profession, undoubtedly, contributes to the welfare and development of the society. In fact, every -profession’ if it wants to be recognized as a -profession’, is expected to contribute significantly to these two major areas in my opinion. The credibility and respect which a profession enjoys in the society is directly linked to the significant contributions it makes to the general well being of different sections of the society, particularly, the needy and deserving sections on the one hand and on the other, its significant contributions to the growth and progress of the society to higher and more desirable standards and quality of living. For example, people have no difficulty in recognizing the medical profession as a -profession’ and respecting the medical professionals as -professionals’ because they are able to see the tangible contributions of the profession especially the secondary and tertiary levels of preventive interventions (identification of diseases, treatment and rehabilitation) to their well being and progress even though they may not directly see and appreciate the intangible contributions such as health promotion, preventive and social medicine. Hence, at this juncture when professional social work education and practice in India are really at the crossroads and faced with innumerable dilemmas, we need to seriously consider and take stock of the significant contributions which trained social workers, thousands of -qualified’ social workers who have gone through the portals of various Universities, Institutes and colleges spread all over the nation, during the past more than 7 decades of professional social work’ in India.

With my over two decades of professional experience in the field, when I seriously reflected and analyzed the existing conditions of social work profession in our country and compared them with other well established and highly respected professions (some of them may be even of a fairly recent origin), one important thing occurred to my mind. That is, it is not just the contributions made by a profession to the society, but rather, the main thing is whether there is a systematic and regular documentation of the contributions qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, the contributions of medical professionals are regularly and systematically documented by way of reports, monographs, books and scientific articles published in reputed and properly indexed professional journals. This is a very crucial area in which I strongly feel that we, the social work professionals have not concentrated much and that is probably one of the main reasons for the lack of social recognition and proper status of the social work profession in India. We must realize that building the credibility of a profession is akin to the building up of the image and credibility of an individual person, a very long term process and it happens only in an incremental fashion. For example, the medical profession enjoys such a high level of recognition and respect because of several decades of documentation and sharing of valuable information about the profession’s contributions. So, if we would like to work towards building up of our profession’s credibility and social image and thereby enhance its status, we need to start paying more attention to this vital aspect of systematic and scientific documentation of our profession and professionals’ contributions to welfare and development. It is never too late or it is better late than never.

Professional Social Work and Welfare

In spite of the existence of social work education and the profession itself for the past more than seven decades, still in India, majority of trained social workers are found working in social welfare agencies. Social workers are employed in orphanages, destitute homes, family counseling centres, de-addiction centres, child care centres, old age homes, rehabilitation centres and the like. Quite a large number of social workers do work with grass root level NGOs, voluntary organizations and other community based organizations but the fact is, they are actually involved in some narrow area of -welfare’ such as child care, youth welfare, welfare of the aged, welfare of women etc. In other words, the professionally trained social work manpower in the NGO sector predominantly has not been used to its full potential in carrying forward the development agenda. However, social workers have undoubtedly contributed significantly to the planning, implementation and evaluation of various welfare schemes (both governmental and non-governmental or philanthropic).

Professional Social Work and Social Development

Due to some reason or other, professional social workers’ direct involvement in the area of social development is far from the expected level. Somehow, a large proportion of trained social workers seem to be happy and contented with some job in welfare agencies probably because, in my opinion, it is less risky, less challenging and less problematic. I think too many of us, social work professionals, have remained far too long in our own little comfort zones. But, undeniably quite a few social workers are more daring and bold enough to get actively involved in the development sector. Some have established prominent NGOs and are doing excellent work but their work is known only to the funding agencies and the local community which they are serving. However, in the development sector also, there is a blurring of the professional identity of social workers since professionals from other disciplines such as agriculture, rural development, town and country planning, development economics and even persons with entirely different background such as law, education, commerce and other subjects are also doing a lot of work in specialized areas such as sanitation, micro-credit, organic farming, cost-effective housing and other technologies etc. Some of them have even become very prominent and received national level and international level recognition, awards and other distinctions.

Professional Social Work Contributions in India

In India, Professional social workers work in various settings such as community development, human resource management, clinical social work and correctional settings. They also work at various levels of management. There are very senior top management professionals, middle level functionaries and even lower level employees. We even have prominent burocrats and senior administrators of different departments who are professionally trained and qualified. Prof.Armaity Desai had served as the Chairperson of the University Grants Commission, the apex body for higher education in India. Prof.K.V.Ramana was the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University. Currently, Prof.S.V.Sudakar is serving as the Vice-Chancellor of B.R.Ambedkar University, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh. We have very senior officers such as DIGs, Directors of Government Departments and Corporations, CEOs of Industries and Corporate Hospitals (Mr.K.R.Gangadharan is the Director of Heritage Hospital, Hyderabad and Dr.Mrs.Shanthi Ranganathan, Director of TTK Hospital, Chennai), District Collectors and Secretaries to the government (those who went on to clear their Civil Services Examinations like Mrs.Gariyali), Directors of very prominent and huge national level NGOs such as Dr.S.D.Gokhale of CASP, Pune. Besides, we have hundreds of thousands of trained social workers working in various capacities in the government departments, boards, corporations, the print and electronic media houses and NGOs. Apart from these, we have a huge number of social workers working as lecturers, research associates and professors in countless number of colleges, universities and institutes all over India. Another large chunk of professionals are found in the NGO sector, unidentified and not properly recognized, at every nook and corner of the country. Quite a few occupy very senior positions in INGOs such as Action Aid, Oxfam, Save the Children, Clinton Foundation, just to name a few. Interestingly, we even have some prominent social activists such as Medha Padkar, Mendhupurkar and Nandita Das.

Social Work in Community Development Field

In the field of community development, right from the inception of the Community Development Programme in 1952, professional social workers have been playing very active roles in different capacities. In some states, many qualified social workers have been functioning as BDOs, Project Officers of DRDA and even as Chief Community Development Officers in Slum Clearance Boards (such as Dr.C.J.Paul in Tamil Nadu). Besides the hundreds of social workers who are found in grass root level NGOs have been contributing significantly for the cause of rural, tribal and urban development. Quite a few have founded their own NGOs and are doing tremendous work in their own respective project areas. Clinical Social Work Contributions

Even though medical social work has not yet been recognized duly in India, we know that in many well established and reputed hospitals and medical colleges such as St.John’s Medical College, Bangalore, Lokmanya Thilak Hospital, Mumbai, Christian Medical College, Vellore, professionally qualified social workers have been doing a tremendous job of offering a variety of psycho-social interventions for the patients and their families. In fact, some institutions even have full-fledged departments of medical social work. Medical social workers contribute to the team by making home visits, psycho-social assessments, counseling and other professional interventions and even follow up services.

The role of social work in the field of mental health in India has been growing in terms of importance and even it has been fully integrated and recognized in premier institutes such as NIMHANS, Bangalore, PGI, Chandigarh, Institute of Mental Health in Ranchi and many other places. In this area, the lead role, undoubtedly, has been played by the Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, the first of its kind in India in existence for over for several decades. In fact, NIMHANS was the first and foremost institution to offer a Two Year Specialized Clinically-oriented Psychiatric Social Work Training. Now, hundreds of psychiatric social workers trained in NIMHANS and other institutions have been working in Psychiatric Hospitals and Nursing Homes all over the country and even overseas.

In developed countries, current and potential future contributions of social workers to health practice are considered at the three levels of direct service to patients, influence on the processes and procedures of the health setting and influence on its future planning and service development. The capacity of U.S.A. and U.K. social work to contribute at these levels is compared in the light of their contrasting relationships to the health system. U.S.A. social work in health care is practised as employees of the health setting or as private practitioners and contains the majority of U.S.A. social workers. It remains a specialism that sustains a major body of published work, commitment to knowledge-building, standard setting and performance review, and a psycho-social orientation shared by a growing number of medical and nursing professionals. Its approach to the health system is that of the pursuit of professional credibility in the secondary setting by adopting the professional-technical practice model of the clinician. U.K. social work since the early 1970s has been committed to generic education and practice and to the development of its own primary setting in social services departments which now employ almost all U.K. social workers. Area team social work in these departments, typified by statutory work with the most deprived sections of the population, has become the dominant culture of British social work, with implications for the occupational identity and career prospects of those social workers who are outposted or attached to health settings but no longer employed by them. British social work and its management now approach the health system from a position of organizational independence which should strengthen their capacity to influence the health system. The cultural differences between social work and medicine, however, are experienced more keenly than ever as many social workers adopt a socio-political practice model that is at odds with the professional-technical model of the clinician. Provision of social work services to the health system has become a questionable priority and raises the issue of whether much of what is now termed “health care’ could more appropriately be termed “social care’ and provided in a primary social work setting to which medicine and nursing would make their “proper contributions’ (Huntington, 1986). Role in Human Resource Management

One of the unique aspects of professional social work training is the specialization called Human Resource Management (the erstwhile Personnel Management and Industrial Relations). As a matter of fact, off late, there is a huge demand among candidates seeking admission to MSW programme for the HRM Specialization, probably due to the enormous employment potential in IT Sector and other industrial sectors with so much of globalization going on. This trend has brought with it a dire need to change the focus of what we do as social workers in the HR field. As rightly brought out by senior social work educator Godwin Premsingh in his paper in the present volume, addressing the need to move or transform from industrial social work to corporate social responsibility.

Correctional Administration and Social Defense

Professional social workers’ role in correctional institutions has still not been given due recognition in India until now. However, social workers are found in voluntary organizations working in the area of social defense such as Kiran Bedi’s Navjyoti India Foundation. There are many social work professionals working as law enforcement authorities in different capacities and ranks of the police departments and prison departments of many states. Professional social workers function as trainers in various Regional Institutes of Correctional Administration. Quite a few social workers also pursue their studies in law and are either involved in their own practice or get involved in organizations working for the protection of human rights and social justice related advocacy work.

Research Contributions Since the inception of professional social work training in India, research has been a part and parcel of social work training and practice. Almost all schools of social work or departments of social work have -social work research methodology and statistics’ as a core course which is compulsory for all students and even have a mandatory requirement of completing a research project and submission of a thesis / dissertation. Besides, many institutions have research degree programmes such as M.Phil and Ph.D programmes. Every year, thousands of MSW students and M.Phil / Ph.D research scholars have been doing research studies on various issues relating to different specialization areas. Most of these student research projects are not published and hence the wealth of valuable information are not shared with fellow professionals and with the public as well. Social work teachers also carry out research projects funded by the UGC and other agencies. In the current volume, another senior social work educator Umesh Samuel has thrown some light on Significant Quantitative Research Contributions by Professional Social Workers in India. Quality professional documentation Quality documentation is a must in the modern world. Essentially, quality documentation is the type of documentation where a physical process or activity is conveyed through the medium of writing by having it noted down in a document of some kind. This is a necessity due to several reasons. Most importantly, it allows errors to be isolated and successes to be replicated. Documentation also helps you to guard against the risk of potential litigation. Competence, accountability and documentation To be competent as professionals, social workers need to communicate effectively with individuals and groups. Accountability means that a social worker must be prepared to answer to others, such as clients, Council and employers, for their actions and the responsibilities that are inherent in their positions. Accountability cannot be delegated. As part of accountable practice, social workers must document/ record the care that is given, changes in care and scope of practice and delegation decisions. Quality professional documentation is the cornerstone of effective communication. It is also an integral part of accountable practice.

What is quality professional documentation? Producing quality professional documentation is only one step in the process of providing quality care. The documentation must also be read, noted and actioned.

What are the benefits of quality professional documentation? Quality professional documentation generates genuine benefits for the client, the professionals and the organisation.

Quality professional documentation benefits clients by: ensuring the client is consulted and included in care planning and that their decisions are recorded supporting continuity of care by allowing another social worker to safely take over the client’s ongoing care

Quality professional documentation benefits the Service providers team by: providing reliable, accurate and complete information for safe and effective care and treatment. Quality professional documentation benefits the social workers by: giving clear and dependable instructions, highlighting their unique contribution to client care, increasing professional credibility by recording clinical judgement, delegation decisions and critical thinking, involving them in a structured reflective reasoning process. Despite the common misconception that record – keeping is a waste of valuable care-giving time, quality professional documentation saves time because less energy is spent searching for information or instructions. Conversely, poor documentation wastes time due to lost, incomplete or misleading information.

Quality professional documentation benefits the organisation/ employer by: providing complete and reliable data to justify financial expenditure and resource allocation such as staffing levels and equipment facilitating research, auditing and quality improvement processes.

Employers and quality practice settings Employers and social work professionals share responsibility to create practice settings that support quality professional documentation. Employers can assist the social workers to meet the standards by: maintaining a documentation system that promotes pertinent sharing of information among team members while protecting client confidentiality, providing an appropriate physical environment, reliable equipment, ample storage and quick retrieval processes factoring sufficient time for staff to produce quality professional documentation into workload and staff ratio calculations and developing documentation policies, procedures and forms in conjunction with social work staff regularly monitoring and evaluating the quality of documentation.

Professional misconduct and documentation

The following are examples of documentation practices that may constitute professional misconduct (this is not an exhaustive list): failure to keep records as required inappropriate destruction of documentation falsification of a social work qualification or job application falsification of clinical records including administration, observations and incident forms. This may include: – documenting care that never occurred or occurred at another time – signing a document that is known to contain false or misleading information – falsely signing for care when it was actually carried out by another person

Documentation standards Seven key standards must be met for -quality professional documentation’. It must be: F.A.C.T.U.A.L. Focused on the client Accurate Complete Timely Understandable Always objective Legible 1. Focused on the client Documentation must be personalised to reflect the client’s needs, values and rights and their involvement in care decisions. Recording clients’ comments supports understanding of their needs 2. Accurate Documentation must give a true and clear picture of the client’s perspective of their health and wellbeing, the plan of care, the care provided and the effects of that care.

3. Complete Documentation must include all relevant information. Records should be more comprehensive, in-depth and frequent if the client is very ill or exposed to high risk. To identify how often and how detailed documentation should be, consider: the complexity of the client’s needs the degree that the client’s condition, care or treatment puts them at risk the employer’s policies and any legal requirements that apply in the practice setting if an unusual event has happened, such as a transfer, refusal of care, accident or error.

4. Timely Documentation must record all significant events as soon as possible, to reflect the client’s current status. Update changes in a client’s care plan as soon as possible. A chronological entry, that is information recorded during or immediately after an event, reduces the likelihood of errors or misunderstandings and is more reliable than information recorded later which is based on memory.

5. Understandable Documentation must be written in plain language and, if abbreviations or symbols are used, must be well understood. Remember to use the full word if the meaning could be misinterpreted, especially when referring to drug administration times or doses. Correct spelling and punctuation aid understanding.

6. Always objective Documentation must be based on clear and unbiased statements. Avoid unfounded conclusions or value judgements andmeaningless or vague phrases such as -up and about’ or -usual day.’Disparaging remarks which criticise clients can bias other staff’s perception of the client.

7. Legible Documentation must be easy to read and decipherable. If you make an error, draw a line through the entry and include your signature, date and reason. Do not delete computer-based entries but -strikethrough’ it.

Conclusion

Social justice is increasingly being seen as the organizing value of social work. First, the profession must consider what “social justice” is and why it is being considered the organizing value for social work. Furthermore, what is an organizing value? The term comes from Wakefield (1988a, 1988b), who has written one of the most definitive statements about social justice in social work, particularly in regard to clinical social work. He described the “defining function” or primary purpose of a profession as its “organizing value,” in the sense in which the organizing value of medicine is curing disease; of education, learning; and of law, legal justice.

The main difficulty is, social workers’ professional contributions are enmeshed with the contributions of other related professionals such as psychologists, counselors, rural development graduates, rehabilitation workers, nurses, occupational therapists, voluntary social workers etc. There is a lack of clear cut boundary with reference to the professional domain of social work. Off late, we find that many other professionals such as graduates of women’s studies, counseling and guidance, youth development or welfare, rehabilitation science, entrepreneurship development, to name a few, also claim that they are also doing -social work’. Even administrators, planners and policy makers find it extremely difficult to accept the distinct identity of professional social work. Hence, it is the need of the hour for social work professionals to come together to take stock of the situation and seriously consider undertaking systematic and proper documentation of their contributions to different sectors and at different levels. If we fail to address this crucial need at least at this point of time (already, it is rather too late), the future cadres of trained social workers are likely to be faced with very serious problems in getting employment and there are chances of the profession losing its credibility and as a result, may lose the very identity (if at all there is any) of being a -profession’.

References

Bjorvell C, Wredling R, Thorell-Ekstrand I. 2003, -Improving documentation using a nursing model-, Journal of advanced Nursing, 43(4), pp.402- 410.

College of Registered Nurses of Manitoba 2003, Fact sheet documentation. Winnipeg, Canada.

College of Nurses of Ontario 2002, Nursing documentation standards. Toronto, Canada.

Forrester, K. & Griffiths, D. 2001, essentials of law for health professionals. Harcourt, Sydney, Australia. Huntington,J (1986), The proper contributions of social workers in health practice, Soc Sci Med.; 22(11):1151-60. Nursing and Midwifery Council (UK) 2004,Guidelines for recordsand record keeping. London, UK.

Nursing Board of Tasmania 2003, Standards for nursing documentation. Hobart, Tasmania. Nurses Board of Western Australia 2004, management of patient information and documentation guidelines. Perth, Australia.

Payne, M (2006), What is Professional Social Work?, Lyceum Books, Inc.; 2nd Edition, Chicago

Queensland Nursing Council 2000, Code of practice for midwives. Brisbane, Australia.

Toowoomba Health Service District, Nursing Documentation, Queensland Health, 2005

Internet Resources:

Wikipedia

http://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/2001/030201.asp

http://www.howtodothings.com/careers/how-to-become-a-professional-social-worker

www.ifsw.org/cm_data/IFSW_Bestinterestpaper0901.doc Brown, Janet , The Importance of Documentation in Quality Management Systems, http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-of-Documentation-in-Quality-Management-Systems&type=sv&id=2427135 http://www.qnc.qld.gov.au/assets/files/pdfs/information_sheets/sop_framework/Framework_information_sheet_03_Professional_documentation_standards.pdf.


Things One Should Know Regarding International Education

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An international environment helps in grooming one’s personality and prepares him as per the global industrial standards.

Global education is the term which means education that is accepted globally. The present world of job market needs students who possess global education in their academic sphere. Owing to this circumstance the young aspiring lot moves with the eyes full of dreams of pursuing education abroad. There are several benefits of pursuing such an education among all these global education is one of the biggest benefit.

Modern desire to possess a career that will yield them money, prestige, glamor and stability. This urge takes them to the platform of international education. Top reputed countries like America, London, Canada, Australia, invites several outside candidates to their landscape and greets them with international education. The value of an international degree contributes a lot in designing an appreciable career to a student. The career oriented lots are ready to do cross any kind of hardships in order reach the door of foreign education.

If you are one star among the cluster of ambitious students with the dreams of pursuing education abroad, you need to understand few things carefully. The first thing is the task of deciding upon the international country from which you will fetch global education. This is an important step and it is better to take advices from your seniors. It is best to consult with the international educational consultancies that are known to guide students by advising them regarding their higher study programs. Such consultancies participate in the task of analyzing your talents and interests and showing you the right educational track.

The second thing is the style of education offered to the students like you at the respective nation chosen by you. Being acquainted with the style of education is very important aspect in order to compete in an international environment. For example, a protect work which gains appreciation in Australia might be rejected in America. Therefore you need to understand the style of education preferred in the nation of your choice.

The third thing is the most vital one. Since you will be away from your comfort zone you will have to adjust yourself in the new environment. International education offers a multicultural platform to the students. You can get the chance to understand several new cultures and at the same time adopt yourself in this unknown environment.

If you are prepared to face the exciting adventures and challenges choose for Study in UK. Groom not just your personality but also frame your credentials with the precious international degree.


Waldorf Education Stretching The S-e-l-f In Seventh Grade

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Michael Wilt, Class Seven teacher, recently looked back at a photograph of his students from two years ago, when they were Class 5 children. His teaching life at Sunrise, daily observing these same children, did not prepare him for the photos evidence of transformation right under his nose. He was startled by the apparently sudden signs of maturity: round grade 5 cheeks have melted into the faces of beautiful young lads and ladies.

If pubescence is a sprouting, flowering springtime for a childs physical self, her/his mind is also setting buds. In Waldorf studies, the burgeoning readiness for intellectual thought finds room to expand through new subjects. Perspective drawing, first met by this class in September, allows material expression of the students new ability to think outside the box, and to deal with new depth in their thinking and expression. Algebra encourages their budding capacity to deal, literally, with unknowns, in their complexity and possibilities.

Following their initial encounter with sciences through physics in Class 6, grade 7 students now embark on their first chemistry adventures. And I do mean adventures. In service of investigating combustion, Class 7 has dug a hole in the earth out in a farther corner of the school grounds and lined it with fire brick. The task at hand is to load the pit kiln with charcoal and some marble or limestone, ignite the whole, fan the flames with a Shop Vac in order to maintain a combustion temperature of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for five hours, and thereby chemically transform the stone into quick lime!

Encounters with this kind of physical phenomenon are conducted through open-ended observation. This is because the goal of Waldorf scientific education is to open doors to independent and exploratory thinking in the students own minds, rather than to graft onto their brains a static, established theory wrapped in a ribbon of closure.

The developmental task of exploring new regions of thought and reason is mirrored in grade 7 history lessons as well. This year, students get acquainted with the beginning moments of Western Europes spread across the earth in the age of discovery, and get a taste of the Renaissance period in Europe itself. Working with geometry and drawing 2-dimensional images that evoke three dimensions link the students with this moment of Western cultures development. As it happens, in grade 6 this class stayed in Rome. This year, therefore, the children are currently on quite a time-travelling journey through the Middle Ages to make it to early modern Europe and the beginnings of its profound and still resonating impact on the entire worlds peoples.

Speaking of the Medieval period, later this month the class will perform its play about a true Medieval archetype, Joan of Arc. Mr. Wilt says its a serious play with flashes of silly humour – without which the play would paint a very inaccurate picture of his group. The students goofiness, innocence, and youthfulness will get a chance to come through in the midst of a challenging drama with lots of dialogue and speaking parts. The complex dialogue, strong characters, and large number of speaking parts reveal another trait of the class: a very strong group of girls, and many strong characters.

Both class and teacher are looking forward to this moment: Mr. Wilt sorted through many plays before finding this one, which alone really jumped out and spoke of his class. And his class, apparently, agrees: it is one of the very few things this year perhaps the only thing that they havent greeted with their characteristic and entirely age-appropriate response: a general groan.

Although his adolescent students are consistent and generous with their worldly groans, Mr. Wilt notes that they look older than they feel as is their duty, right? He witnesses lots of moments of childishness (in the good sense), innocence, and a fresh quality of discovery inside their doing-their-best-to-be-really-jaded appearance.

As their teacher looks toward the groups last year at Sunrise, he is registering the excitement of students about reaching that place that theyve been looking up to for years. Having himself returned to Sunrise after a year away, Mr. Wilt notices that his class benefits from and radiates the warm sense of community at the school. He says his students are together: they dont tease each other and they visibly care about each other. What a good thing to be able to say, and a prize to carry into their graduating year.


Bring grades up to scratch thanks to private tuition

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It’s a competitive world out there. A child’s education helps to give them a good start in life. They might not appreciate at the time just how important those formative years are, but their parents certainly do. No one want to hot house a child, but they don’t want to see them fall behind in key subjects either.

Children study such a wide range of subjects at school. It’s hard to be good at all of them. Some children might excel at English and the arts, but struggle with science and maths. Others might be good all rounders, but fall down with their languages. As a parent it can be hard to know what to do. Schools have limited resources and each child can only receive a small amount of additional help.

Home tutors can help plug the gap. Working one to one can have startling results. Usually it doesn’t take much to bring a child up to speed in a subject they might be weaker at. What doesn’t make sense in a classroom full of thirty other children can click when working with a tutor in a more personal setting.

Private tuition gets results. A little extra work and additional input from a trained tutor can help bring up those all important grades. Getting good grades means choosing a good university and going on to a rewarding and fulfilling career.

So if results in one or two key subject areas aren’t looking so good, perhaps it’s time to investigate extra tuition. Dedicated tuition companies can supply tutors to help coach children in every single subject on the curriculum, through to GCSE and A level. Children are grateful for the extra attention and input that they receive and their grades improve as a result. And parents know exactly how important that is in life.

For more information please visit – www.fleet-tutors.co.uk


Rewards And Disfavors Of Distance Education

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The chances for distance education are bigger than of all time. The DETC (Distance Education and Training Council) forecasts that 6 million Americans are presently entering in distance education programs, and it expects registrations to rise by twenty-five percent every year. Distance education might not be the good alternative for all students, but realizing the rewards and disfavors can assist you select if it is good for you.

Future of Distance Education System
The chances for distance education have burst along with enlarged consumption of the Internet. The primary distance education programs practiced print materials, but the majority of latest programs practice online software system and programs to duplicate a schoolroom background. A lot of degrees are obtainable through distance programs, admitting high school, college and post-graduate diplomas. There are at present distance education choices for almost all career option, from management to engineering.

Adjustability Factors
Among the basic rewards of distance education is the adjustability it offers to students. Distance education renders chances for individuals who might have problem going to a traditional institution such as provincial mummies, people working full time or members from the armed forces. A lot of online educational programs permit you to work on your own pace, thus you are able to set your education into your schedule.

Price
In numerous examples distance education may be substantially more affordable than going to a traditional college. Not just are the classes affordable, but you are able to study from the console of your personal home and not have to pay for board and room or conveyance. The DETC judges that tutorship for distance education programs is usually 3 to 4 times cheaper than at traditional universities.

Communication
Among the primary disfavors of distance education one is the loss of communication with new students in the schoolroom. This communications benefit acquires vital intelligent and problem-solving skills. A lot of distance education programs have created online discussion boards or chat rooms for students to share ideas and communicate, but it’s just a sectional alternate for the communication you acquire in the schoolroom with a lecturer and other students.

Encouragement
A lot of graduates from distance education programs will narrate you that it can be difficult to remain motivated without letting to attend a class daily. As nearly all online programs are self-paced, it can be at ease to miss encouragement, and failures rates do tend to be higher for distance education. GetEducated.com forecasts the dropout rate for distance education programs to be thirty-five percent, equated with just twenty percent for traditional colleges and universities. The DETC notices that self-employed, motivated and goal-oriented persons are the finest match for distance education.

Position
It has admitted a few time, but the ahead distance education programs are converting exactly as well-regarded as traditional colleges. Still, you might find a few employers who are not impressed from an online degree. This could be quashed by selecting a familiar distance education program with an effective position. The Education Department urges that students neglect institutions that are not authorized or claim to provide degrees in just a couple of months. You are able to as well assure with the Better Business Bureau to check your distance education program is good.


How Diagnostic Testing Determines Your Child’s Best Education Curriculum

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For many parents, the most important consideration when beginning to homeschool is choosing the right education curriculum. Though finding a curriculum that matches both a childs particular learning style and parents teaching style is important, what is equally critical is placing a child into a curriculum at the appropriate grade level. Therefore, diagnostic and assessments tests that contain standard evaluation criteria are key in helping your homeschooling experience be more enjoyable. Here are a few reasons why:

Diagnostic tests measure strengths and weaknesses As a yardstick for measuring a childs progress, most placement tests are in-depth and offer a variety of questions that truly evaluate a childs abilities. Because the test results display a students proficiency of skills, a homeschool parent is able to be much more effective as a teacher. Parents will not only determine the best lesson plans and teaching approach to use with an education curriculum, but theyll also find a way to make learning more fun and exciting.

Diagnostic tests eliminate learning gaps Not every child begins his homeschooling education in kindergarten. For many, homeschooling may involve transferring from a traditional classroom setting in a public or private Christian school. In these cases and also in cases where a homeschooling family switches curricula, parents can easily eliminate learning gaps. Diagnostic testing takes the guesswork out of placing a child into the right grade level and makes sure foundational skills in Bible, language arts, history, geography, math, and science have been covered. Plus, placement tests prevent the Im bored look that usually occurs when education curriculum repeats material already learned.

Diagnostic tests customize curriculum Assigning an education curriculum based solely on a childs grade level is not an effective approach for academic success. As many experienced homeschooling parents have discovered, most children do not fit into one cookie cutter mold that includes the same grade level in every core subject area. Some children may excel in math, but struggle with learning language arts skills, such as spelling, reading, and writing. For other children, the complete opposite might be true. Testing a childs abilities prior to placing him within an education curriculum will provide a better individualized learning experience.

Diagnostic tests save money Assuming a childs grade level and failing to administer placement tests for each subject can be a very costly mistake for a homeschooling family. The added expense of shipping and return costs for curriculum that wasnt challenging or too difficult needlessly depletes the homeschool budget. Having to discard partially-used education curriculum creates an even worse expense simply because a childs correct grade level wasnt accurately determined from the beginning.

Diagnostic tests provide peace of mind Homeschool parents repeatedly ask themselves if their child is really learning everything he needs to know. With diagnostic and placement tests, parents can finally put this worry to rest and be assured their child is exactly where he needs to be in his schooling.

Diagnostic tests identify special needs Although the thought is distressing, diagnostic and placement testing indicate if a child is performing far from the skills and abilities recognized for a certain grade level. Because the tests reveal more than just a poor performance, parents will ascertain if further testing is required to determine if their child may have a learning disability or special needs.

Clearly, the difference between success and failure in homeschooling comes down to correctly placing a child within the proper education curriculum. As more parents take on the responsibility of home education, they would be wise to not only take the time to choose the right curriculum, but also to find their childs current skills and abilities to place him in the appropriate grade level.


The Importance Of Online Education

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In the past, it was highly impossible for working category to get updated with recent information and knowledge that was relevant to their field of work. Previously people used to compromise on their careers and fight to obtain a relevant degree which will give them a competitive edge in this highly competing world. But today, thanks to the advent of internet that has helped millions of people around the world to get a relevant degree and earn a decent living. Along with the certified degree people attain, they also attain self confidence as the believe that they have the desired and updated information about their field of interest. With the beginning of online education, the working class has a much better opportunity to pursue any degree they want without having to sacrifice their present job. With the help of online education, many youngsters have fulfilled their dreams of getting a desired certified degree that the always deserved thereby helping them in every possible way. Whether or not you want to take up a business training course or if you would like undertake a qualified training program like acupuncture continuing education, you can accomplish it very easily with online education. Here are a few more benefits of online education:

-Online education can be undertaken at your own comfort hours. Not like those traditional courses in which the learners needed to attend the classes for set schedules, online education provides the freedom to visit training sessions as per the person’s convenience and time. Also, the working people dint get enough time to go to a formal school and learn and train themselves. Hence online education has assisted those who were confined either because of their chaotic schedule or timings. Now it doesn’t matter if you belong to working category or if you are busy with your college classes, online education can definitely help you continue the course you want as well as attain the desired degree you always deserved.
– Flexibility to learn whenever and from wherever you want. Of course, online education helps you conduct your training program at anytime you want to. Whether you are at home or at office, enjoying a lunch break or even if you are waiting for someone for long hours at airport or hotel, you just need to log on to the relevant online educational site and start studying and training yourself. So you can study whenever you feel like, thanks to the WIFI facilities available almost everywhere.
-You get an option to choose the course of your interest and pursue it right away. Since most top educational websites offer you quality live and online continuing education for every educational area, you are able to take maximum benefit from this. Thus, you cab get the certified degree you want to and improve your skills and knowledge in that field thereby helping you to attain your dream success. Now, whether it is acupuncture continuing education or some other medical course of professionals, it can be done effortlessly according to availability of your time and your area of interest.

So, now with the help of interactive media, you can conduct any course you want to online.


Multitude Benefits Of Overseas Education

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If you wish to study abroad and looking for the best place, you can find many services that let you choose the best place. It avails you to get distinguished teaching approach, inter cultural mix up, different way of living life and a multitude of benefits. Studying abroad is everyones dream as it is a worthwhile experience for all. It adds enormous status to your resume. There can be many countries overseas that are providing quality education with the peaceful environment like New Zealand, UK, US, Canada, Australia and so on.
Moreover, you can get the cost effective and affordable education. There will be vibrant cultures and customs that one can enjoy with overseas education. One can choose any of the courses as per his interest and choice such as medicine, nuclear energy, astronomy, biotechnology, oceanography, engineering, management etc. study abroad can increase the ability of students to be independent and explore the way of their thinking.
For international education, Canada provides ideal environment. It basically focuses on developing more effective learning methodologies to enhance and accelerate positive outcomes for students. Individuals who had Study in canada can enjoy successful and prosperous careers. You can experience wide range of quality education institutions offering technical as well as professional degrees and diplomas. However, Canada ranked as the best education system in the world.
Study abroad adds a great prospective to your career. It lets you grab the incredible experience that can be unforgetful during your whole lifetime. It can also be wonderful experience to explore new cultures and get the academic education in the most interesting manner with the availability of numerous curricular activities.
To study in an efficient manner with friendly and exclusive environment, choose to study abroad. Now, get facilitated with better and quality education services at affordable rates with study abroad option.